Installation, Venting, Maintainance and use. [ Back to Part 1 ]
As you choose the appliance, you will be asked to provide information and make decisions about installation details. Professional guidance in these matters is both helpful in choosing the optimum system for your needs and essential to proper performance and safety. Knowing installation basics can help you communicate your preferences and understand professional recommendations. Note: The following information was prepared by HEARTH Education Foundation, in cooperation with the Hearth Products Association and the Pellet Fuel Institute.
Placement and Venting
What factors determine appliance location?
What are my choices for floor protection?
What electrical requirements should be checked?
What are the purposes of venting systems?
What materials and products can be used to vent pellet stoves?
What are my options for venting layout?
Besides appliance requirements, what other factors may be considered in specifying pellet venting systems?
How should pellet venting components be assembled and joined together?
What's a good starting point for learning to operate a pellet stove?
How do I start a fire?
What if the stove doesn't start properly?
What do I do after the stove starts?
What are signs of performance problems?
How do I shut the stove down?
What happens in an unexpected shutdown such as a power outage or component failure?
What are the routine things that I do to keep my stove working right?
What are some of the more advanced maintenance tasks?
What professional maintenance and repair services will I need?
How do I select a service technician?
Enjoyment and Satisfaction
What will I like about heating with pellets?
What factors determine appliance location?
For maximum enjoyment and heating effectiveness, a major living area where the family spends leisure hours and which provides heat flow to other areas is usually a strongly preferred location for the stove. The pellet heating professional considers the factors that determine whether installation requirements can be met in the homeowner's preferred location:
What are my choices for floor
The floor must be protected according to manufacturer's instructions. The minimum size of the noncombustible floor protector is clearly specified in installation instructions. The choice of suitable materials usually requires professional assistance if a suitable hearth is not already available in the home. Built in appliances may require additional protection such as an air space between the appliance and the floor protector.
What electrical requirements should
The dealer or installer should check the intended appliance outlet for proper voltage, ground, and polarity. The electrical circuit to be used should have a properly rated circuit breaker. · Are there special requirements for mobile home installations? The model you choose must be approved for use in a mobile home. The U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development (HUD) makes additional requirements for solid fuel burning appliances installed in mobile homes (Figure 7), which are listed in stove manufacturers' installation instructions.
What are the purposes of venting
Proper venting is an essential for proper appliance performance, dwelling safety, maintenance frequency, and indoor environment. Pellet stoves produce little or no visible smoke after startup, but exhaust gases, fine ash, and water vapor must be removed safely from the appliance to the outdoors without leaking into the house. The purpose of all vents is removal of combustion by-products during normal operation. For most designs, the exhaust is mechanical: a fan blows the combustion by-products out and pulls air needed for combustion into the fire. A few stoves operate without a combustion air fan and use natural draft both for exhaust and combustion air intake. Some heat also moves through the vent. Protection of nearby combustibles is essential. The minimum clearance between the vent and combustibles, as specified in the vent installation instructions, must be met or exceeded to assure safety. ·
What materials and products can be
used to vent pellet stoves?
The product specifically tested and listed for use with pellet stoves is PL vent pipe, labeled as tested to UL 641. PL vent pipe is double wall pipe; the stainless steel inner pipe that carries the exhaust products is separated from the outer wall by an air space. Pipe joints must be sealed gas tight to prevent exhaust products moving through the vent under pressure from leaking into the home. Stoves tested and listed requiring PL vent must use no substitute venting materials.
Venting materials and products that MUST NOT BE USED TO VENT PELLET APPLIANCES include:
Pellet fireplace inserts and freestanding stoves are often vented into existing masonry and factory-built fireplace and woodstove chimneys (Figure 8). The chimney- should be inspected before installation to ensure that it is clean, mechanically sound, and meets local safety code requirements. The appliance manufacturer's installation instructions may require relining the chimney with an approved metal liner, pipe, or PL vent. Vents or grilles on the face of factory-built fireplaces which provide cooling air to the outside jacket of the fireplace must not be blocked. Cleanout access for future maintenance should be considered. ·
What are my options for venting
Vertical (Figure 12) Extends up from the stove and penetrates the ceiling and roof . Horizontal and vertical (Figure 13). Extends from the top or back of the appliance, penetrates the wall, turns up to penetrate the eave and roof. · Venting into existing chimney (see Figure 8). Follow manufacturer's recommendations for venting into masonry and factory-built chimneys, which may include partial or full chimney relining.
Besides appliance requirements, what
other factors may be considered in specifying pellet venting
The following factors may play a role in the designation of the venting system:
How should pellet venting components
be assembled and joined together?
Appliance manufacturer's instructions should be followed closely regarding sealing joints and seams, particularly of pressurized mechanical exhaust vents. It is imperative that they be gas tight so that they cannot leak. Proper application of an approved sealant or sealing band is typically required. Appliance manufacturer's instructions for pipe sealing which exceed vent manufacturer's instructions must take precedence.You can get a sense of what heating with pellets involves through an introduction to the principles of operation and the reasons for maintenance that you will come to understand as an experienced operator.
What's a good starting point for
learning to operate a pellet stove?
The rule here is "Before all else fails, read the instructions." Operating a pellet" stove is not difficult, but it is a new technology that calls for basic knowledge. Training videos accompany some stoves, and hands on demonstrations by many dealers and installers.
How do I start a fire?
Small dry fuel (pellets) and combustion air provided by a fan on most designs make startup easy. Operating instructions provided with the stove give the specific steps to follow. Manual ignition stoves call for the owner to apply an approved gel or solid starter material (no liquids), light the pellets, and monitor the fire to see that the fire catches and the flame gradually grows. On automatic ignition stoves, pushing the start button feeds pellets to the burn pot and heats the self-igniter device.
What if the stove doesn't start
A safety device monitors startup and stops fuel feed if operating temperatures are not reached within a specified time period. If startup fails, the operator makes sure that the hopper has fuel, that fuel is feeding, and restarts the stove. Repeated failed lighting cycles indicate the need for maintenance or professional service.
What do I do after the stove
After control panel or air inlet adjustments and a quick performance check, the stove is set to provide hours of even, comfortable heat. Stoves equipped with a remote wall thermostat respond to owner setting and room air temperature by cycling on and off or by cycling from a low to high burn, depending on stove startup design.
What are signs of performance
Properly operated and maintained pellet stoves experience few, if any problems. Most of pellet stove operation is automatic, but sometimes combustion air adjustment is needed. A lazy, orange, sooty flame or dark smoke coming out of the vent (after startup and before shutdown) may indicate the need for more air. An overactive, "blow torch" flame calls for less air." Performance problems are more likely to be caused by neglected maintenance than by operation. Lazy flame, dark smoke, unusual sooting of glass, unexplained smoke spillage, and reduced heat output all point to the need for maintenance of appliance components and/or the venting system or for remedies for house depressurization. Problems related to mechanical failure usually result in safety switches shutting the appliance down. Appliance shutdowns may, however, indicate nothing more than owner forgetfulness (empty hopper) or hurry (improper startup), or intermittent power failure. Unexplained, repeated appliance shutdowns call for professional advice and service.
How do I shut the stove down?
Shutting the stove down is typically a matter of simply setting the control to the Off position according to operating instructions. The fuel feed stops delivering fuel right away, and after the stove cools sufficiently, all motors and blowers cease operation. The stove should NOT be shut down by unplugging the power cord.
What happens in an unexpected shutdown
such as a power outage or component failure?
Although fuel feed stops in a power outage, the pellets in the burn pot may continue to burn or smolder. The duration of this condition can vary with appliance design from a few minutes to an hour or more. The resulting smoke and hot gases rise, seeking the path of least resistance. If the exhaust vent does not have vertical sections to provide natural draft, smoke may spill into the home (Figure 14).
What are the routine things that I do
to keep my stove working right?
Routine maintenance tasks are essential to peak stove performance:
What are some of the more advanced
Cleaning the venting system is usually performed by professionals (see below), but can be tackled by the handy stove owner with thorough knowledge and the right equipment. Motors and fans need occasional cleaning and may require lubrication. The wrong lubricant or wrong amount of lubricant can damage components. Some components which call for removal for service require replacement of a gasket . Gaskets for the fire chamber door, ash pan door, and hopper lid (on some designs) may need occasional replacement to assure a tight seal.
What professional maintenance and
repair services will I need?
Most pellet stove owners depend on professional service for cleaning and preventive maintenance on at least an annual basis. Many dealers offer service plans that offer reduced costs and convenient scheduling. Cleaning and maintenance services usually performed include:
Many manufacturers now offer low cost, high value extended warranty on electrical components. You can also benefit from professional advice that helps you improve stove performance and convenience with operating tips or advice on fuel.
How do I select a service
Finding competent in-home service should really be part of the buying decision, since service is needed at least on an annual basis. Many stove shops and service technicians offer a service plan that specifies a service schedule, what is covered, travel costs, and other details. One way to assess service is to ask for references. Another is to look for technicians who have taken the national exam to become certified by the non-profit HEARTH Education Foundation.
ENJOYMENT AND SATISFACTION
What will I like about heating with
Experienced pellet burners reap rewards for shopping and planning carefully and learning to operate and maintain their pellet heating system. They understand that pellet stoves contribute dramatic improvement in convenience to the long tradition of the hearth. The fuel itself is easily and cleanly stored and handled in bags. A single loading of a pellet stove can provide long hours of warmth. Pellet stoves also provide a special comfort associated with wood burning. The combination of fans delivering warm air currents and the direct comfort of radiant heat provides special satisfaction on a cold winter day. The heat provided is even and constant, due to the automatically regulated fuel feed responding to owner settings. Pellet stoves offer strong environmental benefits. Pellets not only reduce dependence on finite supplies of fossils fuels like oil and gas, but they also put to good use materials that would otherwise unnecessarily and expensively add to our waste disposal problems. In addition, pellet stoves burn very cleanly and offer the lowest emissions of unwanted pollutants in solid fuel burning appliances. Burning biomass pellets offers convenient heat delivered with environmental concern.
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